This report examines the motivations behind Turkey’s military intervention in Libya and assesses the long-term effects on the battlefield and on diplomacy. It argues that Turkish backing has helped bolster Tripoli’s war effort and deter Haftar’s advance, but that the conflict is likely to escalate further. The Report Turkishmade Libyastanleygizmodo also highlights the threat posed by a new generation of loitering and kamikaze drones.
The Kargu-2 is a loitering drone
One of the most exciting aspects of drone warfare is its ability to attack targets without human intervention. This is an area that has received a lot of attention lately due to the recent use of autonomous weapons in Syria, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Ethiopia.
While there are several different types of drones available, one of the most interesting is the Kargu-2. It’s an attack quadcopter made by Turkish company STM, which is used for asymmetric warfare and anti-terrorist operations.
The Kargu-2 is equipped with machine learning algorithms embedded on its platform that allow the drone to independently hover and guide itself to a target via electro-optical targeting. It can then engage the target and detonate its explosive charge close to the object, minimizing collateral damage.
It also operates offline, allowing it to interact with its own machine learning algorithms without an external source of data such as a human or a computer. This allows the weapon to operate a great deal more autonomously than most other loitering munitions, which typically operate with supervised autonomy (human-in-the-loop).
As of March 2020, a UN report suggests that the Turkish-made Kargu-2 may have been the first drone to kill a target without any commands. The report states that the drone hunted down and remotely engaged retreating Haftar-affiliated forces in Libya’s civil war.
According to the report, the drone spotted live Hafter targets and then struck them with an autonomous strike based on the information in its database. The report says that this is a significant achievement, since it’s the first time an autonomous drone has killed a target in a conflict.
In addition to its self-destructing capabilities, the Kargu-2 is being developed for swarming. This means that it will be able to work in groups of twenty drones, allowing it to search more efficiently and attack multiple targets simultaneously.
The swarming capability is an important feature of the Kargu-2 because it’s immune to GPS jammers, which have become commonplace in recent years. The drone is undergoing a series of upgrades, including improved navigation and target recognition.
In addition, the drone is slated to be exported, and three foreign customers have expressed interest in purchasing it. During flight tests, the Kargu-2 has been seen flying in a variety of conditions, from deserts to tundra and tropical regions.
The Kargu-2 is a kamikaze drone
The Turkish drone maker STM is now in discussions with foreign customers to export the Kargu-2, a kamikaze-style attack drone that has been used by Turkey in the Libyan conflict. The Kargu-2 is a fully autonomous weapon that can fly a route and use deep learning algorithms to find and target targets without human intervention, according to a report in the Turkish newspaper Hurriyet.
The drone is designed to be able to operate in a variety of environments, including desert, tundra and tropical conditions, and it can be flown from the ground or by helicopter. It has LIDAR, daylight cameras and infra-red imaging capabilities.
Its main purpose is to strike targets, but it can also be used to carry out reconnaissance missions. It is armed with three-pound warheads that can be used for a variety of different purposes: explosive / fragmentation to destroy unarmored personnel, thermobaric to destroy buildings and bunkers, or shaped charges to hit heavy armor.
Unlike most other UAVs, however, the Kargu-2 is designed to be a lethal autonomous weapon system (LAWS). This means that it can attack targets independently of its operator, without any data link between the two.
Like other similar weapons, it can be programmed to identify and engage targets based on facial recognition. This feature is useful in combat scenarios where it may be difficult to detect targets, such as in peer-to-peer warfare.
This type of technology has been a popular weapon in other conflicts, such as the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. It is also often employed by other countries, such as Russia, China and Iran.
While the drone is small and lightweight, its ability to rapidly destroy a single target can give it an enormous advantage over other forces in a conflict. It is also able to destroy heavy armoured vehicles, such as tanks and S-300 air defence systems.
It has also been shown to cause massive damage in close quarters, where it can kill or disable a number of people in the vicinity at once, such as by destroying a building or bombing an enemy vehicle.
The Kargu-2 is a weapon of mass destruction
A Report Turkishmade Libyastanleygizmodo suggests that the turkish made Kargu-2 quadcopter used by the Libyan government in civil war is an autonomous weapon of mass destruction. The drone was programmed to hunt human targets without any human intervention, and it has the ability to attack targets when the machine loses connection to the operator.
This means it can fly a specific route, identify the target using LIDAR and daylight cameras, and explode with either an armor-piercing or a non-armor piercing warhead designed to kill people in the air. It can also form swarms of drones that can fly together to search efficiently and strike simultaneously against multiple targets, according to its manufacturer, STM.
STM has developed a number of software upgrades to the Kargu-2, most notably swarming technology. This allows a group of twenty drones to work together and carry out attacks against different targets at the same time, removing the need for a single person to operate all of them.
The swarming capability is important because it gives these weapons the ability to target a large number of people quickly and with less collateral damage than other weapons in their class. The drones are able to target and destroy individuals of all ages, genders, races, and religions.
Moreover, swarms of killer drones are much easier to control than individual drones, and they don’t create radioactive craters or wreck valuable property when they fall from the sky. This makes them especially useful in areas where conventional bombing is not possible, or when it would be too dangerous for a single bomber to get close enough to a civilian population.
But this swarming capability can also make these killer drones more likely to be used in a way that threatens global security, says Dr. Mark Kallenborn, an expert in unmanned systems and WMD.
In his paper, Kallenborn describes an armed fully autonomous drone swarm that can locate, identify, and attack people without human intervention. He says that if a swarm is capable of wiping out a million people and does not distinguish between civilians and military targets, it could be a weapon of mass destruction.
The Kargu-2 is a machine learning drone
In March 2020, a lethal drone operated by Turkey hunted down and remotely engaged retreating soldiers loyal to a Libyan general without its handlers’ say-so, according to a report turkish made libya stanley gizmodo recently covered. The incident incited debate over the use of killer autonomous robots.
The UN Security Council’s Panel of Experts on Libya noted that Turkish-made Kargu-2 attack quadcopters had “hunted down and remotely engaged” Haftar-affiliated forces during clashes between the United Nations-recognized Government of National Accord and the warlord’s militias, which were also supported by the Turkish military. The UN panel wrote that the drone was used in a campaign launched by the GNA in March 2020 to push HAF militias back from the coast.
According to the report, the Kargu-2 — a drone produced by Turkish military tech firm STM — was designed to operate in both a manual and an autonomous mode. It has machine learning algorithms that can be trained to identify moving and static targets, and can work in swarms of up to 20 drones at once.
It’s a loitering drone with the capability to fire three-pound warheads, which can be used to destroy light vehicles and personnel. The swarming technology is being developed as part of the Turkish government’s Kerkes program, which seeks to improve the ability of armed drones to fly in GPS-denied environments.
The AI-equipped drones were programmed to attack targets without requiring data connectivity between the operator and the munition, a so-called “fire, forget and find” capability. That means the weapon can be guided to its target by other drones and is immune to GPS jammers, which have become a major issue for many combat drones.
But the AI system that powered these drones lacks what human intelligence would call common sense, which can be exploited by adversaries to fool the systems, says Daniel Kallenborn, an assistant professor of computer science at UC Santa Cruz. He points to the way that a simple change to a pixel in an image can make an AI software program conclude that the object is an iPad, rather than an iPod.
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